Surfing as a Riding on waves toward the shoreline takes skill, stamina, and agility. After paddling to the point where waves are breaking, a surfer catches a wave and rides it using one of several basic moves.
In the bottom turn, a surfer turns the surfboard sharply off the trough at the base of a wave and uses momentum and speed gathered from the wave's motion to direct the surfboard up the face of the wave-the smooth section below the wave's white crest.
The basic idea behind surfing is to ride the unbroken portion of a wave for as great a distance as possible, using a variety of maneuvers to speed up, slow down, and maneuver around the breaking portion of the wave.
Proficient surfers continue to ride until the entire wave has broken and become whitewater.
Surfers originally used long, cumbersome wooden boards but now surfboards are constructed of a lightweight synthetic boards that allow a greater degree of maneuverability.
The high performance surfboards used by top professional competitors are typically about 1.8 to 2 m (6 to 6.5 ft) long, 47 cm (18.5 in) wide, less than 6 cm (2.5 in) thick, and weigh about 2.7 kg (6 lb). These boards are known as shortboards. The shortboard is better for speed and aerial maneuvers.
On the other end of the surfboard spectrum is the longboard. Most longboards are 2.7 m (9 ft) long, 51 to 56 cm (20 to 22 in) wide, and about the same thickness as shortboards. They weigh less than 7 kg (15 lb).
The bottom of a board has from one to five fins near the tail, although the three-fin, or thruster, design is standard. These fins provide the board with directional stability and enhance performance by providing additional power and forward drive.
In competition, surfers are judged using a subjective system that awards points based on the size of the wave ridden, the distance ridden, and the quality of the maneuvers performed by the surfer.
The Association of Surfing Professionals (ASP), founded in 1983, functions as the international governing body of professional surfing. It replaced the International Professional Surfing tour, which was founded in 1975 by American surfers Fred Hemmings, Jack Shipley, and Randy Rarick.
The ASP operates a professional surfing tour using a two-tier system.
The ASP's World Championship Tour (WCT) is limited to 44 qualifying professionals from around the world; its World Qualifying System (WQS), which awards qualifying points for the WCT, operates within individual countries.
Surfers are scored on a ten-point scale by a panel of five professional judges appointed by the ASP and its associated national
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